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CEPS Project

Composition and Drivers of Energy Prices and Costs

Case Studies in Selected Energy Intensive Industries

Units Involved

Energy, Resources and Climate Change

01 December 2015 / 30 April 2016

This study examines energy prices for a selection of five energy-intensive sectors of EU industry: i) steel; ii) aluminium (primary & downstream); iii) wall and floor tiles; iv) bricks and roof tiles; and v) refineries. For each of these five sectors, the study aims to provide: i) an overview of energy price developments with particular attention to energy price levels (mainly electricity and natural gas), and the structure of energy prices, i.e. the components of energy bills; ii) an overview of the evolution of energy intensity; iii) an international comparison with non-EU production sites in those sectors where data was available; and vi) an assessment of the impact of energy prices and their components on the unit production costs and other key performance indicators, such as the price-cost margin, EBIT and EBITDA. The analysis was conducted between December 2015 and June 2016, with the primary information collected via a questionnaire completed by selected plants across the EU. In total, 151 EU plants provided data for this study. In addition, data from non-EU plants and third party data providers were used to conduct an international comparison between energy costs for EU plants and major competitors. The period covered by the assessment ran from 2008 to 2015.


This project was awarded under the Multiple Framework Contract with reopening of competition in the field of Sustainable Industrial Policy and Construction: Competitiveness, Environment, Climate Change, Energy and Transport (409/PP/2014/FC Lot 1) with the European Commission, DG GROW. The full list of CEPS’ Framework Contracts is available here.

CEPS Project

Project Details

Energy, Resources and Climate Change / GRID

Composition and Drivers of Energy Prices and Costs

Case Studies in Selected Energy Intensive Industries

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This project was funded by the European Commission, DG GROW.
Felice Simonelli Felice Simonelli
Felice Simonelli
+32 (0)2 229 39 23
Project Partners

Economisti Associati

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