Since the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force in 1999, the European Union has progressively incorporated military security into its broad spectrum of activities and worked to build up its military capabilities. In this new book, Willem van Eekelen, a diplomat-turned-politician, charts the progression of the European security and defence policy, its difficult and even competitive relationship with NATO and the development of a European security strategy. From Words to Deeds explores new threats linking internal and external security and the emerging concept of the ‘responsibility to protect’ in the context of UN peacekeeping missions. He describes the innovative changes proposed by the European Convention, which might survive the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands. He presents how the European Defence Agency could play a major role in the interface between communitarian and intergovernmental activities and bridge the gap between operational requirements and research, development and acquisition.