Political relations between Russia and both the EU and the US have recently reflected an extended legacy of distrust and resentment. But renewal of leadership is now on the horizon in all three cases: in Russia already in May, in the US by the end of the year, and for the EU the Lisbon Treaty will bring at the turn of the year a new Presidency of the European Council and a reinforced role for the High Representative for foreign affairs. In this Policy Brief, Michael Emerson sketches the substantive moves that would allow the new leaders to transform the present sad state of affairs between Russia and the West. He argues that the case for doing so is strong. The West has a huge interest in integrating Russia into its economic, political and security structures, if that can be done in mutually acceptable ways. And Europe and the West need to get their affairs in order together, to be better placed to face the new foreign policy challenges presented by the rise of Asia and the emerging multi-polar world.