The unilateral imposition of a Canadian visa on Czech nationals in 2009 caused diplomatic turbulence between the Czech and Canadian governments, and posed a policy problem for the EU. Should all EU member states impose a reciprocal visa on Canadians or undermine the norm of reciprocity and admit that certain member states and bilateral relations are more important than others?
The proposed long-term policy solution is a ‘next generation’ visa that is capable of targeting individuals rather than entire state populations. Authors Mark B. Salter and Can E. Mutlu argue that i) there is no evidence in current profiling or risk assessment systems that any programme can provide a compelling, efficient, and secure target list and ii) individualised visa restrictions targeting would violate international legal obligations under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.
This Liberty & Security Working Paper concludes a project on Migration and Asylum in Europe and EU-Canada Relations, along with the Working Paper on The Canada-Czech Republic visa dispute two years on: Implications for the EU’s Migration and Asylum Policies, published simultaneously.
Mark B. Salter is Associate Professor at the School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa. Can E. Mutlu is a PhD candidate at the School of Political Studies at the University of Ottawa.