The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed, up-to-date and critical analysis of the New Basel Capital Accord framework. It focuses on the limitations and pitfalls that may deserve further investigation, particularly at the European level. Moreover, it provides a provisional assessment of its effects on small- and medium-sized European banks, as well as small- and medium-sized European enterprises. It examines the procyclicality of the new Accord and offers mechanisms to counter it. Finally, it addresses the challenges of implementing the new rules at the EU level.