Four years after the Commission adopted its Transport White Paper, a CEPS Task Force was formed to review European transport policy and to identify the remaining challenges in this arena. The CEPS Task Force is now publishing its findings, against the background of a forthcoming mid-term review by the Commission of EU progress towards a single market for transport. It finds that while progress has been made towards a coherent, EU-wide road transport policy, less has been achieved for rail, air and sea in recent years. The CEPS transport group also sees future transport demand set to grow more strongly than anticipated due to internal market reforms and globalisation. If this development materialises, rather than favouring rail, the report argues that all transport modes and technological options must be allowed to play their appropriate part in meeting Europe’s escalating transport needs.