The objective of this report is to analyse the prevalence of good and poor health in Poland and the impact of self-assessed health on the use of health care services. Special attention is given to the impact of ageing on health status and the utilisation of health care. In addition, other social and economic factors that underpin health status and drive the utilisation of health care services are described. The analysis differentiates utilisation by type of medical service, including primary care, consultations with specialists and hospital care. The main research question is whether the ageing process is leading to a worsening health status of the population or if living longer means living in better health. The answer to this question implies possible changes in the structure of medical care utilisation and – finally – allows for recognition of the impact of population ageing on the level of health care expenditure.