This report brings together in a single volume the excellent contributions presented at the high-level conference on “The Future of Retail Banking in Europe: Competition and Regulatory Challenges” held at CEPS on the 10th of June 2009. The conference was jointly organized by the European Credit Research Institute (ECRI) and the Deutsche Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin) and coincided with the 10th anniversary of the founding of ECRI. While most of the debate about the crisis dealt with the banking industry as a whole and the stabilisation policies introduced by governments, especially central banks, this volume drew attention to the microeconomic specifics of banking. By starting with the basics underlying financial markets, we acquire a better understanding of the many facets of business practices, which in turn allows us to identify possible market failures. The identified market failures serve as a starting point for the design of optimal policies in the arenas of competition policy and consumer protection.