Thursday | 26 Nov 2020
09 Dec 2019

Differentiated integration within PESCO

Clusters and convergence in EU defence

Steven Blockmans / Dylan Macchiarini Crosson

0
Download Publication

927 Downloads

Differentiation, or what some have called the ‘negative starting point’ of integration, has always been the norm in EU defence policy. Political leaders in the European Council are nevertheless mindful of the need to protect their citizens against security threats from within and outside the EU’s borders. For this reason, a package of defensive measures has been developed with remarkable speed since 2016. Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) is the most prominent innovation in this field. Somewhat surprisingly, PESCO has produced the most inclusive expression of enhanced cooperation, even if it is the most flexible of the differentiated integration mechanisms provided by the Treaties. This is largely the result of a German push for inclusivity, which prevailed over a French desire for a higher level of ambition.

Driven by the European Defence Fund, PESCO has been touted as the formula to generate ‘positive differentiation’, or greater convergence in Europe’s defence sector. With varied clusters of member states lining up behind different types of projects, this report looks at the deeper forms of differentiated integration that are maturing below the Treaty level in EU defence. Is PESCO developing in the way that Germany envisaged or France wanted?

Related Publications

Browse through the list of related publications.

Cross-border data access in criminal proceedings and the future of digital justice

Navigating the current legal framework and exploring ways forward within the EU and across the Atlantic

In the Name of COVID-19

An Assessment of the Schengen Internal Border Controls and Travel Restrictions in the EU

Arming instability

EU-Israel arms trade and the EU Common Position

Association agreement between the EU and Georgia

European Implementation Assessment

Catch me if you can

Updating the Eastern Partnership Association Agreements and DCFTAs

Tailor-made laws in the Western Balkans

State capture in disguise

Eastern Partnership policy beyond 2020

Advances and omissions in a vast agenda

Love thy neighbour?

Coronavirus politics and their impact on EU freedoms and rule of law in the Schengen Area