17 Nov 2011

Determinants of the Probability of Obtaining Formal and Informal Long-Term Care in European Countries

Izabela Marcinkowska / Agnieszka Sowa

Download Publication


The aim of this report is to identify patterns in the utilisation of formal and informal long-term care (LTC) across European countries and discuss possible determinants of demand for different types of care. It addresses specific research questions on the volume of different types of care and the conditions under which care is provided. The latter include demographic factors, especially population ageing, health status and the limitations caused by poor health, family settings and social networking. The analysis indicates substantial differences in the receipt of LTC across European countries, depending on traditions and social protection models, which determine both the availability of institutional care and the provision of informal care. In countries with a Scandinavian approach, where the levels of state responsibility and provision of institutional care are high, informal care is less prominent and is mostly provided on an irregular basis by caregivers outside the family. As needs for care increase, formal settings are more common. Countries in the Continental Europe group are less uniform, with a high share of individuals using formal settings of care, but also combining formal and informal care. In Mediterranean countries, the provision of informal care, including personal care, plays a much greater role than formal LTC.

Izabela Marcinkowska, PhD, is an economist at the Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE) in Warsaw and Agnieszka Sowa, PhD, is a sociologist and economist at CASE.

Related Publications

Browse through the list of related publications.

Unleashing retail investors’ potential

The key ingredient for enhancing the EU's investment funds and capital markets

EU Accession Prospects of Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia

First responses to the conditions set by the European Commission

One year of war in Ukraine

Understanding what has happened and what needs to happen next

Scenarios for the Eurozone

A realistic perspective between hopes and fears

Gendered migrant integration policies in the EU

Are we moving towards delivery of equality, non-discrimination and inclusion?

Europe after the War

Financial Cooperation for Pan-European, Euro-Mediterranean and EU-African Integration

What’s in a name?

Getting the definition of Artificial Intelligence right in the EU’s AI Act