01 Mar 2006

A Comparison of Integration Programmes in the EU

Trends and Weaknesses

Sergio Carrera

Download Publication


CHALLENGE Paper No. 1 / 28 pages

This paper offers an overview of integration programmes for immigrants in a selected group of EU member states. The main trends and similarities are assessed and broadly compared. As the paper argues, in the national arena there appears to be a distinct move in the direction of integration programmes with a mandatory character. Obligatory participation in such programmes is now a regular feature of both immigration and citizenship legislation, and a precondition for having access to a secure juridical status. In the first section, the paper mainly addresses the questions of: Who are the target groups and what is the scope of the integration programmes? What are the related enforcement mechanisms and sanctions? What is the link between immigration, integration and citizenship, and what effects (positive or negative) are emerging from that relationship? The second section looks at the evolving EU framework on the integration of immigrants, where a struggle is taking place in two parallel arenas. The first is over the competence to determine policy in this field – at the national versus the EU level (principle of subsidiarity). The second struggle concerns the overall approach, where substantial differences appear between the EU’s framework on integration and its Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy (soft policy), and the actual legal acts involved (hard policy).

Related Publications

Browse through the list of related publications.

Towards a principled level playing field for an open and secure online environment

Regulation, enforcement and oversight of online content moderation in the EU and the United Kingdom

The Declaration on a Voluntary Solidarity Mechanism and EU Asylum Policy

One Step Forward, Three Steps Back on Equal Solidarity

A transformational moment?

The EU's response to Russia's war in Ukraine

The EU grants temporary protection for people fleeing war in Ukraine

Time to rethink unequal solidarity in EU asylum policy

European Union Policies on Onward and Secondary Movements of Asylum-seekers and Refugees

A Critical Overview of the EU’s Migration Management Complex

Limitations on Human Mobility in Response to COVID-19

A preliminary mapping and assessment of national and EU policy measures, their sanctioning frameworks, implementation tools and enforcement practices

Between politics and inconvenient evidence

Assessing the Renewed EU Action Plan against migrant smuggling