E3+3 coercive diplomacy towards Iran: Do the economic sanctions add up?
More than ten years of international negotiations have brought no resolution to the nuclear dispute with Iran. In January 2012 the EU and US autonomously adopted an unprecedented sanctions package, mainly directed at the Iranian oil industry. Eighteen months later, figures show that the Iranian economy has been hit hard. Sanctions have not changed the regime’s calculus, however. Instead of further upping the pressure on Iran, the authors argue for a return to a more balanced dual-track approach so as to reinforce the moderate narrative within the Iranian ruling elite.
Steven Blockmans is a CEPS Senior Research Fellow and Head of the EU Foreign Policy unit. Stefan Waizer is a PhD candidate at Sciences Po, Aix en Provence.