Climate Change


31 - 60 of 207
12 January 2011

With the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) now entering in its seventh year of operation, this report takes stock of the largest multi-sector greenhouse gas trading scheme in the world. It reviews the experiences of the pilot phase from 2005-07, assesses the adjustments introduced in the second phase (2008-12) and looks ahead to the radical changes that will come into effect in the third phase starting in 2013. The assessment is based on a literature review of recently published ex-post analyses and ex-ante studies and draws as well on our own calculations.

05 January 2011

Transport is the only sector in the EU in which greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise. Unless this trend can be reversed, the EU will have little chance of reaching its objectives in the context of global obligations on industrialised countries to reduce emissions between 80% and 95% by 2050 compared to 1990. Many different solutions exist, including, for example, new technology such as electrification of road transport, modal shift, optimising existing technologies and policy measures and more radical measures such as binding GHG emissions targets.

04 January 2011

This paper gives an assessment of the state of the finance negotiations under the Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UN climate change conference in the Chinese town of Tianjin (2-9 October 2010) was the final preparatory UN meeting for the 16th annual UN Conference of Parties (COP-16) held in Cancún, Mexico in December 2010. The aim of this paper is to assess how the momentum achieved in Tianjin can be harnessed to deliver the sort of outcomes required for a comprehensive deal.

09 December 2010

The primary question addressed in this paper is: How would different governance priorities affect the institutional arrangements for a credible financing mechanism in the climate regime? The paper argues that tradeoffs are inevitable in climate finance negotiations, so it is important to recognise them upfront and organise negotiations around the priorities that different sets of countries identify. Such a process would generate alternative institutional designs, each offering a different balance of voice in governance, scale of funding, and timely action.

26 November 2010

Among the many unresolved issues on the agenda of the forthcoming UN climate change negotiations in Cancún is the issue of what will happen to the Kyoto Protocol, since at present, there will be no targets for greenhouse (GHG) emissions from developed countries under the Protocol beyond 2012. To illuminate this aspect of the Protocol, this Policy Brief looks closer at the nature of the commitments and the compliance regime under the Kyoto Protocol. We argue that the compliance regime of the Protocol is not as robust as many of the Protocol’s supporters might think.

17 November 2010

Cities are home to 80% of the population in the EU and are responsible for 70% of its greenhouse gas emissions. Urban areas can therefore play a key role in improving energy efficiency and promoting low-carbon development. Cities are important centres of policy innovation and can – among other actions – advance clean energy systems, promote sustainable transport, manage waste and water, and improve energy efficiency in buildings. Cities across Europe are facing similar challenges, and are now attempting to learn from each other and to develop and exchange best practice.

06 October 2010

Any strategy by the EU towards making a meaningful contribution to the global effort of reducing GHG emissions needs to address the core of the problem: ‘coal’, or, more accurately, abundant coal. The failure in the United States, a rich economy with only a moderate dependency on coal, to introduce even a moderate carbon tax, means that it certain that no commitment will be forthcoming for the next generation from China, which is still much poorer and depends even more heavily on indigenous coal (and produces twice as much as the US).

11 June 2010

The revised EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) grants partial, temporary free allocation of emission allowances to industry, based on benchmarks to address competitiveness concerns. The EU, led by the European Commission, has developed some 50 to 60 benchmarks covering around 85% of total EU ETS industrial emissions.

27 May 2010

This study analyses the economic and political consequences of introducing a tax on the carbon content of imported goods at EU borders and whether such a tax would be compatible with WTO rules. The major findings are:
1. A CO2 border tax or import tariff would increase global welfare.
2. Such a carbon import tariff can be made to be compatible with WTO rules.
3. There are no insurmountable practical obstacles to introducing such a tariff.

27 May 2010

Sectoral approaches can be considered part of a transition towards a global carbon market. Providing the potentially strongest link between the EU emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) and sectoral approaches, sectoral benchmarks can be used for setting caps, free allocation, or can become a catalyst for linking carbon markets. There would be at least three ways to strengthen the effectiveness of sectoral approaches through the choice of performance, metrics, reporting and compliance.

05 May 2010

This study explores ways to integrate industry in the process of designing and operationalising sectoral approaches to climate change according to a guideline that could be agreed in Cancún in December 2010 or later. One possible effective form of industry’s contribution could be their participation in a consultative body based on a public-private partnership and tasked to steer this process.

22 April 2010

Sectoral approaches to mitigating climate change depend on setting goals that incorporate performance indicators – such as benchmarks and the effective application of measurement, reporting and verification requirements – supported by well-developed data systems. At the same time, each host country deciding to adopt these approaches needs to develop and demonstrate the ability to implement the scheme. This report briefly introduces the basic requirements for sectoral approaches while drawing lessons from current efforts.

01 April 2010

The aim of this paper is to review major assessments of the Copenhagen Accord with a focus on what it will ultimately deliver, especially within the context of the economic crisis. The paper also looks at the broader geopolitical implications and the resulting challenges for the EU, the role of the UN and the linkages of the UN negotiations with the Copenhagen Accord.

05 March 2010

This Working Document complements the CEPS Policy Brief, Understanding India’s climate agenda, and elaborates on three key issues related to the country’s energy challenges: access to energy, the future emissions trajectory and energy subsidies. This study looks into the making and framing of the country’s domestic climate agenda from a political economy perspective.

16 February 2010

This CEPS Working Document reviews the potential impacts of climate change on 11 key indicator categories and 3 large regions covering the entire European Union. Although there remains a considerable degree of uncertainty about local and regional effects, the paper highlights strong distributional patterns. Northern Europe might even experience some positive effects, while the Mediterranean will mostly be negatively affected.

15 January 2010

Noriko Fujiwara performs a quick post-mortem on the outcome and performance of the EU at Copenhagen in this new CEPS Commentary and then swiftly moves on to draw lessons for how the EU can effectively and forcefully project itself into the forthcoming series of meetings leading to the next annual conference (COP16) in Mexico City before the end of the year.

12 January 2010

The EU is left wondering what its future role will be in the next round of talks on climate change, after having played a marginal role in Copenhagen, particularly at the close of negotiations. What happens now will condition much of the EU’s position and leverage in the future. Among the more pressing tasks is the need to develop a strategy for co-operation with the US.

25 December 2009

Days after the meeting ended, people are still asking themselves whether the outcome of the Copenhagen summit was positive or not. What is striking is that the outcome is generally seen in a more favourable light in the US than in Europe. The difference can probably be explained by different expectations and perspectives. In this new CEPS commentary, CEPS Fellows Christian Egenhofer and Anton Georgiev make a first attempt at deciphering the implications of the accord for the EU.

11 December 2009

The costs and benefits of carbon tariffs have been extensively discussed in terms of competitiveness and carbon leakage. This Commentary argues that global welfare should be the focus. EU tariffs against developing country exports would increase global welfare and the proceeds from the tariffs could help poorer exporting countries reduce the carbon intensity of their economies.

11 December 2009

The purpose of a cap-and-trade system is to help in the fight against global climate change. This paper warns that a unilateral approach could increase global emissions by shifting production to more carbon-intensive methods abroad. Acting alone, the EU’s Emission Trading Scheme may be doing more harm than good.

05 December 2009

In March 2009, CEPS formed a Task Force under the chairmanship of Anders Wijkman, former MEP, Vice Chairman of the Taellberg Foundation and Vice President of the Club of Rome, to examine the impacts of climate change and the extent to which the EU budget can effectively assist in addressing them.

20 November 2009

This report is based on discussions in the CEPS Task Force on the Clean Development Mechanism and Future Flexible Mechanisms post-2012, chaired by Ulrika Raab, Senior Advisor at the Swedish Energy Agency. It was assumed that flexible mechanisms will play a crucial role in facilitating a positive outcome in the UN climate change negotiations in Copenhagen in December 2009, and that they will inspire a wide range of actions by participating countries on their own and directing attention to business investment opportunities.

01 October 2009

In a ruling last week, the European Court of First Instance struck down the decision of the European Commission to reject the CO2 emissions national allocation plans of Poland and Estonia. In this new commentary, CEPS Senior Fellow Christian Egenhofer argues that, in order to ensure the integrity, predictability and stability of the carbon market, the Commission should reach a political settlement with Poland, Estonia and the other member states that have taken the matter to court.

02 September 2009

In light of the immature state of preparations for the international climate change negotiations in Copenhagen in December, CEPS Senior Research Fellow Christian Egenhofer predicts that the best outcome to be hoped for at this point is an agreement to continue negotiations in earnest. He warns the developed countries, led by the EU, not to accede too easily to the less-founded demands of developing countries, just to be able to declare a political victory.

06 July 2009

This paper presents a simple, basic model to compute the welfare consequences of the introduction of a tariff on the CO2 content of imported goods in a country that already imposes a domestic carbon tax. The main finding is that the introduction of a carbon import tariff increases global welfare (and not just the welfare of the importing country) if there is no (or insufficient) pricing of carbon abroad. A higher domestic price of carbon justifies a higher import tariff.

23 June 2009

In an effort to address the financing gap for clean energy projects in developing countries, the Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund (GEEREF) was set up in late 2008 as an innovative financing instrument aimed at leveraging private investments with public funds. The purpose of this CEPS Policy Brief is to give an update on GEEREF with a special focus on its financing and possible impacts of the financial crisis. The paper concludes that the strength of GEEREF is not its current financial volume but the innovative nature of the instrument.

15 May 2009

This policy brief builds on results arising from the mitigation and policy appraisal research domains of the ADAM project (Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy). Funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research in the UK, ADAM is an integrated research project running from 2006 to 2009 that will lead to a better understanding of the trade-offs and conflicts that exist between adaptation and mitigation policies.

28 November 2008

The annual climate change conference (COP14/CMP4) will take place in Poznań, 1–12 December 2008. This Policy Brief aims at providing a brief assessment of where we are on the road from Bali to Copenhagen, thinking ahead of Poznań in relation to the current negotiating environment and exploring the possible nature of an agreed outcome to be reached in Copenhagen at the end of 2009.

30 October 2008

Increasingly people ask how the financial crisis will impact future climate change policy. While intuitively many assume that a recession will reduce the ambition of EU and other countries to press ahead with climate change policies, CEPS researcher Christian Egenhofer argues in this commentary that the opposite may well be the case.

24 October 2008

This paper summarises various estimates of the financial impacts of climate change. It differentiates between studies referring to incremental costs (UNFCCC, World Bank, Oxfam, UNDP, OIES) and those referring to costs expressed as a percentage of global economic output (Stern Review, UNDP, Vattenfall, European Commission, OECD, IPCC). Based on these studies, the paper presents the potential order of magnitude of costs to the EU27, as well as estimations of the role of the public sector in contributing to these costs.